Robert Parris Moses, a United States civil rights activist who endured beatings and jail while leading black voter registration drives in the American South during the 1960s and later helped improve minority education in math, has died at age 86.
Moses worked to dismantle segregation as the Mississippi field director of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee during the civil rights movement and was central to the 1964 “Freedom Summer” in which hundreds of students went to the South to register voters.
Moses started his “second chapter in civil rights work” by founding in 1982 the Algebra Project, which included a curriculum Moses developed to help poor students succeed in math.
Ben Moynihan, the director of operations for the Algebra Project, said he had talked with Moses’ wife, Dr Janet Moses, and she said her husband had passed away on Sunday morning in Hollywood, Florida. Information was not given as to the cause of death.
This is a tremendous, tremendous loss. Bob Moses was one of the bravest Americans this nation produced, a man who helped architect Freedom Summer and the effort to democratize this country. Losing these icons of democracy as our democracy is under assault should push us to act. https://t.co/CsB77gDLX4
— Ida Bae Wells (@nhannahjones) July 25, 2021
Moses was born in Harlem, New York, on January 23, 1935, two months after a race riot left three dead and injured 60 in the neighbourhood. His grandfather, William Henry Moses, has been a prominent Southern Baptist preacher and a supporter of Marcus Garvey, a Black nationalist leader at the turn of the century.
But like many Black families, the Moses family moved north from the South during the Great Migration. Once in Harlem, his family sold milk from a Black-owned cooperative to help supplement the household income, according to “Robert Parris Moses: A Life in Civil Rights and Leadership at the Grassroots”, by Laura Visser-Maessen.
While attending Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, he became a Rhodes Scholar and was deeply influenced by the work of French philosopher Albert Camus and his ideas of rationality and moral purity for social change.
Moses then took part in a Quaker-sponsored trip to Europe and solidified his beliefs that change came from the bottom up before earning a master’s in philosophy at Harvard University.
Bob Moses is my model for organizing. Principled, intellectual, humble, deliberate, willing to work with all who come, never berating but consistently challenging. Fun loving, kind, reflective, tender.
— Imani Perry (@imaniperry) July 25, 2021
Moses didn’t spend much time in the Deep South until he went on a recruiting trip in 1960 to “see the movement for myself”. He sought out the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta but found little activity in the office and soon turned his attention to SNCC.
“I was taught about the denial of the right to vote behind the Iron Curtain in Europe,” Moses later said. “I never knew that there was (the) denial of the right to vote behind a Cotton Curtain here in the United States.”
The young civil rights advocate tried to register Black people to vote in Mississippi’s rural Amite County where he was beaten and arrested. When he tried to file charges against a white assailant, an all-white jury acquitted the man and a judge provided protection to Moses to the county line so he could leave.
He later helped organise the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which sought to challenge the all-white Democratic delegation from Mississippi.
But President Lyndon Johnson prevented the group of rebel Democrats from voting in the convention and instead let Jim Crown southerners remain, drawing national attention.
#BobMoses has died. What a brilliant, conscious, compassionately active human being. Educator. Organizer. Leader. Rest well, sir.
— The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center (@TheKingCenter) July 25, 2021
Disillusioned with white liberal reaction to the civil rights movement, Moses soon began taking part in demonstrations against the Vietnam War then cut off all relationships with white people, even former SNCC members.
Moses worked as a teacher in Tanzania, Africa, returned to Harvard to earn a doctorate in philosophy and taught high school math in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Later in life, the press-shy Moses founded the Algebra Project.
Historian Taylor Branch, whose “Parting the Waters” won the Pulitzer Prize, said Moses’ leadership embodied a paradox.
“Aside from having attracted the same sort of adoration among young people in the movement that Martin Luther King did in adults,” Branch said, “Moses represented a separate conception of leadership” as arising from and being carried on by “ordinary people”.
The SNCC Legacy Project offers its condolences and love to Janet Moses, and his children Maisha, Omo, Taba, and Malika Moses at the passing of Bob Moses who was husband, father and an emotional center for the family. pic.twitter.com/W1boiPW0kP
— SNCC 60th (@SNCC60th) July 25, 2021